Refer to the following information for the next four questions.

A student constructed a series circuit consisting of a 12.0-volt battery, a 10.0-ohm lamp, and a resistor. The circuit does not contain a voltmeter or an ammeter. When the circuit is operating, the total current through the circuit is 0.50 ampere.

Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

Pluto orbits the Sun at an average distance of 5.91 x 10^{12} meters. Pluto’s diameter is 2.30 x 10^{6} meters and its mass is 1.31 x 10^{22} kilograms. Charon orbits Pluto with their centers separated by a distance of 1.96 x 10^{7} meters. Charon has a diameter of 1.21 x 10^{6} meters and a mass of 1.55 x 10^{21} kilograms.

Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

A horizontal 20.-newton force is applied to a 5.0-kilogram box to push it across a rough, horizontal floor at a constant velocity of 3.0 meters per second to the right.

Refer to the following information for the next four questions.

An electron traveling with a speed of 2.50 x 10^{6} meters per second collides with a photon having a frequency of 1.00 x10^{16} hertz. After the collision, the photon has 3.18 x 10^{-18} joule of energy.