PhysicsLAB NY Regents
January 2007, Part 3

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Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the diagram below, which represents an electric circuit consisting of four resistors and a 12-volt battery.
 
41 What is the current measured by ammeter A?
 
42 What is the equivalent resistance of this circuit?
 
43 How much power is dissipated in the 36-ohm resistor?
 
44 A 1.00-kilogram ball is dropped from the top of a building. Just before striking the ground, the ball’s speed is 12.0 meters per second. What was the ball’s gravitational potential energy, relative to the ground, at the instant it was dropped? [Neglect friction.]
 
45 As shown in the diagram below, a child applies a constant 20.-newton force along the handle of a wagon which makes a 25° angle with the horizontal.
 
 
How much work does the child do in moving the wagon a horizontal distance of 4.0 meters?
 
46 A 110-kilogram bodybuilder and his 55-kilogram friend run up identical flights of stairs. The bodybuilder reaches the top in 4.0 seconds while his friend takes 2.0 seconds. Compared to the power developed by the bodybuilder while running up the stairs, the power developed by his friend is



 
47 Which quantity and unit are correctly paired?



 
48 Which wavelength is in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum?
 
49 The diagram below represents a wave.
 
 
What is the speed of the wave if its frequency is 8.0 hertz?
 
50 What is the wavelength of a light ray with frequency 5.09 × 1014 hertz as it travels through Lucite?
 
51 What is the total number of quarks in a helium nucleus consisting of 2 protons and 2 neutrons?
 
Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

Force A with a magnitude of 5.6 newtons and force B with a magnitude of 9.4 newtons act concurrently on point P.
 
52 Determine the scale used in the diagram. [1] 

53 Use a ruler and protractor to construct a vector representing the resultant of forces A and B. [1] 

54 Determine the magnitude of the resultant force. [1] 

Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

A student performed an experiment in which the weight attached to a suspended spring was varied and the resulting total length of the spring measured. The data for the experiment are in the table below.
 
57 Plot the data points for the attached weight versus total spring length. [1]
 
 

58 Draw the line or curve of best fit. [1] 

59 Using your graph, determine the length of the spring before any weight was attached. [1] 

Refer to the following information for the next question.

The graph below represents the relationship between wavelength and frequency of waves created by two students shaking the ends of a loose spring.
 
60 Calculate the speed of the waves generated in the spring. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2] 

Refer to the following information for the next two questions.

The spectrum of visible light emitted during transitions in excited hydrogen atoms is composed of blue, green, red, and violet lines.
61 What characteristic of light determines the amount of energy carried by a photon of that light?
 
62 Which color of light in the visible hydrogen spectrum has photons of the shortest wavelength?
 
Refer to the following information for the next four questions.

A spark timer is used to record the position of a lab cart accelerating uniformly from rest. Each 0.10 second, the timer marks a dot on a recording tape to indicate the position of the cart at that instant, as shown.
63 Using a metric ruler, measure the distance the cart traveled during the interval t = 0 second to t = 0.30 second. Record your answer in your answer booklet, to the nearest tenth of a centimeter. [1]
 

64 Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of the cart during the time interval t = 0 second to t = 0.30 second. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2]
 

65 Calculate the average speed of the cart during the time interval t = 0 second to t = 0.30 second. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2] 

66 On the diagram in your answer booklet, mark at least four dots to indicate the positions of a cart traveling at a constant velocity. [1]
 
 

Refer to the following information for the next three questions.

A 50.-ohm resistor, an unknown resistor R, a 120-volt source, and an ammeter are connected in a complete circuit. The ammeter reads 0.50 ampere.
 
67 Calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2] 

68 Determine the resistance of resistor R. [1] 

69 Calculate the power dissipated by the 50.-ohm resistor. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2] 

Refer to the following information for the next four questions.

A ray of light (f = 5.09 × 1014 Hz) is incident on the boundary between air and an unknown material X at an angle of incidence of 55°, as shown. The absolute index of
refraction of material X is 1.66.
 
70 Identify a substance of which material X may be composed. [1] 

71 Determine the speed of this ray of light in material X. [1] 

72 Calculate the angle of refraction of the ray of light in material X. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2] 

73 On the diagram in your answer booklet, use a straightedge and protractor to draw the refracted ray of light in material X. [1]
 
 

Refer to the following information for the next four questions.

Physicists working in Europe announced yesterday that they had passed through nature’s looking glass and had created atoms made of antimatter, or anti-atoms, opening up the possibility of experiments in a realm once reserved for science fiction writers. Such experiments, theorists say, could test some of the basic tenets of modern physics and light the way to a deeper understanding of nature.
 
By corralling [holding together in groups] clouds of antimatter particles in a cylindrical chamber laced with detectors and electric and magnetic fields, the physicists assembled anti-hydrogen atoms, the looking glass equivalent of hydrogen, the most simple atom in nature. Whereas hydrogen consists of a positively charged proton circled by a negatively charged electron, in anti-hydrogen the proton’s counterpart, a positively charged antiproton, is circled by an anti-electron, otherwise known as a positron.
 
According to the standard theories of physics, the antimatter universe should look identical to our own. Anti-hydrogen and hydrogen atoms should have the same properties, emitting the exact same frequencies of light, for example. . . .
 
Antimatter has been part of physics since 1927 when its existence was predicted by the British physicist Paul Dirac. The anti-electron, or positron, was discovered in 1932. According to the theory, matter can only be created in particle-antiparticle pairs. It is still a mystery, cosmologists say, why the universe seems to be overwhelmingly composed of normal matter.
 
Dennis Overbye, “More Sci- Than Fi, Physicists Create Antimatter,” New York Times, Sept. 19, 2002
74 The author of the passage concerning antimatter incorrectly reported the findings of the experiment on antimatter. Which particle mentioned in the article has the charge incorrectly identified? [1]
 

75 How should the emission spectrum of anti-hydrogen compare to the emission spectrum of hydrogen? [1]
 

76 Identify one characteristic that antimatter particles must possess if clouds of them can be corralled by electric and magnetic fields. [1]
 

77 According to the article, why is it a mystery that “the universe seems to be overwhelmingly composed of normal matter”?
 




 
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